Definitions and Classification
(NANDA Nursing Diagnoses)
Not everyone exposed to the same stimulus had the same intensity of pain. A stimulus can lead to pain at some time, but not at other times. These factors can increase or decrease the sensitivity of the different components of the nociceptive system. As for the things that can affect pain perception and response are:
In the younger children have difficulty understanding the procedures that cause pain measures. Children who have not been able to say these words too difficult to express verbally express their pain and to parents or health workers. Children cognitively toddler and pre school age are not able to remember the description of the pain or to associate the pain as an experience that can occur in various situations.
The elderly have the ability to interpret the pain and may develop complications in the presence of various diseases with vague symptoms that may be of the same body part. Not all older adults experience cognitive impairment. However, when an elderly person has puzzled, then he will have difficulty remembering the experience of pain and give a detailed explanation.
In general, men and women did not differ significantly in response to pain (Gil, 1990 in Potter and Perry, 1997).
Some cultures believe that showing pain is natural. Other cultures tend to practice behaviors that are closed. Clancy and Mc Vicar (1992), states that cultural socialization determine a person's psychological behavior.
4) The meaning of pain
Meaning a person who is associated with pain affect a person's experience of pain and how to adapt to pain. Individuals will perceive pain in different ways, if the pain is to give the impression of a threat, a loss, penalties and challenges. The degree and quality of client perceived pain associated with the meaning of pain.
The level of a client to focus attention on the pain can affect the perception of pain. Increased attention associated with increased pain, while the transfer of effort associated with a decreased response to pain (Gil, 1990 in Potter and Perry, 1997).
The relationship between pain and anxiety is complex. Anxiety often increases the perception of pain, but pain can also cause a feeling of anxiety. Autonomic arousal pattern is the same in pain and anxiety (Gil, 1990 in Potter and Perry, 1997).
Fatigue increases the perception of pain. Fatigue causes the sensation of pain has intensified and lower coping abilities. This can be a common problem in individuals who suffer from the disease for a long time.
8) The experience of previous
Each individual learns from the experience of pain. Previous experience of pain does not necessarily mean that the individual will receive pain more easily in the future. If the individual has long had a series of frequent episodes of pain without ever recovering or suffering from severe pain, the anxiety or fear may arise. If individuals do not ever feel the pain, the first perception of pain can interfere with coping with pain.
9) coping style
Individuals who have a focus on internal control perceive themselves as individuals can control their environment and the end result of an event, such as pain (Gil, 1990 in Potter and Perry, 1997). In contrast, individuals who have an external locus of control, perception of other factors in their environment.
10) Support of family and social
Individuals who experience pain is often dependent on family members or close friends for support, assistance and protection. Although still felt pain, the presence of a loved one will minimize the loneliness and fear.